Oxygen therapy is a therapeutic method of administering oxygen, increasing arterial partial pressure and arterial oxygen saturation, increasing arterial blood oxygen content, correcting various causes of hypoxia, promoting tissue metabolism and maintaining the vital activities of the body. There are various methods of oxygen administration, of which oxygen administration via nasal catheter is the most common method in clinical practice.
1. To correct the state of hypoxia caused by various reasons, to increase the partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen (PaO₂) and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO₂), and to increase the arterial blood oxygen content (CaO₂).
2. Promote the metabolism of tissues and maintain the vital activities of the body.
1、Explain the importance of oxygen therapy to patients and their families, and instruct them on the correct use of oxygen therapy, precautions and key points of cooperation.
2、Inform patients about the safety of oxygen use.
3、Tell the patient to tell the health care staff if he/she feels dryness in the nasopharynx or breathlessness in the chest.
1、In the process of oxygen inhalation, it is necessary to adjust the oxygen flow rate, remove the patient's nasal cannula first and adjust the flow rate before connecting to the patient; when stopping oxygen inhalation, remove the nasal cannula first and then turn off the flow meter.
2. For patients on continuous oxygen, keep the tube open and replace it when necessary.
3、Observe and assess the effect of oxygen inhalation in patients.
4、Oxygen inhalation therapy is more widely used in clinical emergency work. In oxygen therapy treatment, wetting of oxygen can prevent the irritation of the respiratory mucosa due to its excessive dryness and enhance the therapeutic effect.
5, commonly used wetting solution: sterilized water for injection. Acute pulmonary oedema with 20%-30% ethanol, has the effect of reducing the surface tension of the foam in the alveoli, causing the foam in the lungs to rupture and dissipate, improving lung gas exchange and reducing the symptoms of hypoxia.
1、Oxygen concentration and oxygen flow conversion method: oxygen concentration (%) = 21 + 4 X oxygen flow (L/min).
2、Types of oxygen therapy.
Low concentration oxygen therapy, the concentration of oxygen absorbed is less than 40%.
Medium concentration oxygen therapy, oxygen absorption concentration of 40% - 60%.
High concentration oxygen therapy, oxygen absorption concentration of 60% or more.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with a concentration of 100%.
3、Side effects of oxygen therapy: when the oxygen concentration is higher than 60% and the continuous oxygen intake time exceeds 24 hours, side effects of oxygen therapy can occur.
4、Home oxygen therapy refers to oxygen therapy administered at home when the patient is out of the hospital environment.
Long-term home oxygen therapy can improve arterial partial pressure and oxygen saturation, improve dyspnoea, enhance exercise capacity, improve quality of life, reduce pulmonary hypertension, prevent or delay the formation and development of pulmonary heart disease, reduce the occurrence of respiratory failure and prolong survival time.
1. Clinical manifestations of oxygen toxicity: rapid breathing, nausea, vomiting, irritability, intermittent dry cough.
2. Preventive measures for oxygen toxicity: avoid prolonged high concentration oxygen therapy; frequent blood gas analysis; dynamic observation of the effect of oxygen therapy.
3, pulmonary atelectasis: after inhaling high concentration oxygen, oxygen is replaced in a large amount in the alveoli, once the bronchi have obstruction, the oxygen in the alveoli to which they belong is rapidly absorbed by the blood in the pulmonary circulation, causing aspiration pulmonary atelectasis. The symptoms are irritability, increased breathing and heart rate, increased blood pressure, followed by dyspnoea, cyanosis and coma. Preventive measures are to encourage the patient to take deep breaths, cough more and change the lying position and posture frequently to prevent obstruction by secretions.
4. Dry respiratory secretions: O₂ inhalation must be preceded by wetting before inhalation.