Since the outbreak of new coronary pneumonia at the end of 2019, the changes in the epidemic have been affecting everyone's heart. Current epidemiological investigations show that the incubation period of new coronavirus pneumonia can be 1 to 14 days or even longer, mostly 3 to 7 days. The main clinical manifestations are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A small number of patients may have symptoms such as nasal congestion and runny nose, sore throat and diarrhea.
(1) Mild type: the main clinical symptoms are mild. It only manifests as low heat, slight fatigue and so on. There is no pneumonia.
(2) Common type: it has symptoms such as fever and respiratory tract, and pneumonia can be seen on imaging.
(3) Severe type: patients may have symptoms of dyspnea and respiratory distress, and oxygen saturation decreasing at resting state with the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pa2) / oxygen uptake concentration (fi02) < 300mnhg.
(4) Critical type: in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome will progress rapidly, and respiratory failure, shock, and coagulopathy may occur. Even, it will merge with the failure of other organs, which can be life-threatening.
Due to the similarity between the new coronavirus and SARS and MERS viruses, the pathological changes in the lungs caused by the invasion of the virus are also similar. Therefore, novel coronavirus pneumonia also has a core problem -- hypoxia. Therefore, the ventilator is very important for patients.
Medical ventilator, also called mechanical ventilation in medicine, is mainly divided into invasive and non-invasive ventilation. Non invasive medical ventilator, namely non-invasive ventilation, refers to a breathing support mode that does not require the establishment of an invasive artificial airway to assist mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation is a human-machine connection through a nasal mask or a face mask. Compared with invasive ventilation, the patient can avoid the pain of endotracheal intubation or tracheotomy, thereby avoiding the occurrence of complications related to tracheal intubation and tracheotomy. In addition, non-invasive ventilation can also promote the shortening of invasive mechanical ventilation time and hospital stay.
Although there are certain differences between invasive and non invasive ventilation, both of them are important methods for clinical treatment of respiratory failure and are closely related. Even if the patient's condition progresses and eventually has to undergo invasive ventilation, the previous application of noninvasive ventilation provides a stable high oxygen concentration, which can help patients better transition from non-invasive to invasive.
What are the applications of invasive and non invasive ventilation? For mild cases, non-invasive ventilation can be applied to mild patients in a timely manner to ensure oxygenation of the patients, and reduce the workload of medical staff to reduce the risk of infection. Many people mistakenly believe that only patients with obvious dyspnea are the indications of using noninvasive ventilator. In fact, non-invasive ventilator is mainly used for patients with mild and moderate respiratory condition, not mainly for those who are already on the severe respiratory condition.
If the symptoms of hypoxia can be improved, it will undoubtedly be a great help for patients with new coronary pneumonia. Effective measures are needed to help them improve their oxygenation as soon as possible. Patients with mild symptoms can be provided with oxygen by using masks, but most patients require mechanical ventilation.