Mechanical ventilation, a medical O2 inhalation solution, is a therapy to assist a person by pushing airflow into the patient's lungs when they find it hard or unable to breathe on their own. A mechanical ventilator is used to help or replace spontaneous breathing to reduce the work of breathing and reverse life-threatening respiratory derangement in critically ill patients or to maintain respiratory function in those undergoing general anesthesia. It involves the application of positive pressure, which can be invasive (e.g. in intubated patients) or noninvasive (e.g. CPAP or BiPAP).
With a tube inserted into the patient's airway, performed in the intensive care unit in the hospital.
Endotracheal intubation delivers oxygen to the lung by inserting a tube into the patient’s airway (trachea) through the mouth or nose.
Tracheostomy allows inspired gas to enter the lung by inserting a tube through a hole made into the airway.
It can be used at both hospitals or homes by people with respiratory difficulties which below are some most common kinds of noninvasive ventilation.
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a medical ventilation term, which means a form of positive airway pressure (PAP) ventilation in which a constant level of pressure above atmospheric pressure is continuously applied to the upper airway.
Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) automatically adjusts the amount of pressure that is necessary at a given moment to meet each specific person’s breathing needs, which often change throughout the night as we move in and out of different stages of sleep.
Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) has two pressure settings: the prescribed pressure for inhalation (ipap), and a lower pressure for exhalation (epap). The dual settings allow the patient to get more air in and out of their lungs.
The mechanical ventilator does the work of a patient’s breathing so their body can rest and recover. Mechanical ventilators are used:
- As short-term respiratory assistance in surgeries
- For longer periods in critically ill patients
- At home by people who have difficulty breathing normally
In the last two decades several new modes of mechanical ventilation have emerged with the merging of ventilator and computer technologies. This has increasingly helped doctors meet individual requirements in mechanical ventilation.